He remained with the Quito mission for four-and-a-half years, during which time he studied geopolitics, military geography and military intelligence. [168] Pinochet's son Marco Antonio, who had been accused of participating in the drug trade, in 2006 denied claims of drug trafficking in his father's administration and said that he would sue Manuel Contreras, who had said that Pinochet sold cocaine. Three years later, he entered the Chilean War Academy but had to postpone his studies because, being the youngest officer, he had to carry out a service mission in the coal zone of Lota. A plebiscite held in 1988 rejected his candidacy as president beyond 1990, but he retained his post as commander-in-chief of the army until 1998. ", "Chile recognises 9,800 more victims of Pinochet's rule", My 35-year fight to find Pinochet torturers who killed my brother, Chilean ex-navy officers found guilty of murdering priest, Pinochet directly ordered killing on US soil of Chilean diplomat, papers reveal, Capítulos desconocidos de los mercenarios chilenos en Honduras camino de Iraq, Former Chilean soldier charged with murder after stunning radio confession, "Chilean judge sends 106 former secret agents to prison", "Cómo cambió la economía de Chile en los últimos 40 años", "El legado de Friedman en Chile, 40 años después", "La crisis en Chile y el fantasma de Allende", "Still Hidden: A Full Record Of What the U.S. Did in Chile", "Augusto Pinochet biography data. In that referendum, the Chilean people denied Pinochet a new mandate, opening the way for the reestablishment of democracy in 1990. [173] According to the transitional provisions of the 1980 Constitution, a referendum was scheduled for 5 October 1988, to vote on a new eight-year presidential term for Pinochet. [176][177], In September 2005, a joint investigation by The Guardian and La Tercera revealed that the British arms firm BAE Systems had been identified as paying more than £1m to Pinochet, through a front company in the British Virgin Islands, which BAE has used to channel commission on arms deals. "[170] Two days later, he was again sentenced to house arrest for the kidnapping and murder of two bodyguards of Salvador Allende who were arrested the day of the 1973 coup and executed by firing squad during the Caravan of Death.[171][172]. A military junta was established immediately following the coup, made up of General Pinochet representing the Army, Admiral José Toribio Merino representing the Navy, General Gustavo Leigh representing the Air Force, and General César Mendoza representing the Carabineros (national police). El coronel que le pena al ejército, CDE insiste en unir caso Huber con tráfico de armas a Croacia, Generales (R) y civiles de Famae procesados en caso armas a Croacia, Muere el ex dictador Chileno Augusto Pinochet, Augusto Pinochet falleció en el Hospital Militar tras sufrir recaída, "Viudos de Franco" homenajearon a Pinochet en España, Pedregoso camino para que cenizas de Pinochet llegaran a Los Boldos, Augusto Pinochet (1915–2006) – A Biography, Documentary Film on Chilean Concentration Camp from Pinochet's Regime: Chacabuco, CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet's Repression, Analysis of economic policy under Pinochet, When US-Backed Pinochet Forces Took Power in Chile, Committee of Cooperation for Peace in Chile, Attempted assassination of Bernardo Leighton, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Augusto_Pinochet&oldid=1008005188, People indicted for crimes against humanity, Recipients of the Order of the Liberator General San Martin, Heads of government who were later imprisoned, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from October 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Alistair Horne, "The case for Henry Kissinger" – The Independent (3587 words, 18 August 2009), Alide Dasnois, "Chile and the absurdity of ideological social engineering" – The Cape Times (1226 words, 8 July 2009), Michael Posner, "What it's like to arrive at a place called exile; Drawing on personal experience, Carmen Aguirre's play chronicles the plight of Chilean refugees fleeing the Pinochet regime" – The Globe & Mail (829 words, 17 September 2009), This page was last edited on 21 February 2021, at 02:01. [44], The Church Report investigating the fallout of the Watergate scandal stated that while the U.S. tacitly supported the Pinochet government after the 1973 coup, there was "no evidence" that the US was directly involved in it. His wife, Lucía Hiriart, and his son, Marco Antonio Pinochet, were also sued for complicity. Large foreign banks reinstated the credit cycle, as debt obligations, such as resuming payment of principal and interest installments, were honored. Protests continued, however, during the 1980s, leading to several scandals. Then, how did the Pinochet dictatorship end? Charles Horman and Frank Teruggi, both U.S. journalists, "disappeared,"[67] as did Víctor Olea Alegría, a member of the Socialist Party, and many others, in 1973. [21], Under the influence of the free market-oriented "Chicago Boys," Pinochet's military government implemented economic liberalization, including currency stabilization, removed tariff protections for local industry, banned trade unions, and privatized social security and hundreds of state-owned enterprises. [89], The Pinochet government implemented an economic model that had three main objectives: economic liberalization, privatization of state owned companies, and stabilization of inflation. At the same time, he worked as a teachers' aide at the War Academy, giving military geography and geopolitics classes. [160][161] In December 2004, he was charged with several crimes, including the 1974 assassination of General Prats and the Operation Colombo case in which 119 died, and was again placed under house arrest. [167] The money for the drug trade was allegedly deposited into Pinochet's bank accounts. Ceme Centro De Estudios Miguel Enriquez", "Aquellos que todo lo dieron. [26] His fortune grew considerably during his years in power through dozens of bank accounts secretly held abroad and a fortune in real estate. The Supreme Court affirmed, in March 2005, Pinochet's immunity concerning the 1974 assassination of General Carlos Prats in Buenos Aires, which had taken place in the frame of Operation Condor. [164] In 2006, Pinochet was indicted for kidnappings and torture at the Villa Grimaldi detention center by judge Alejandro Madrid (Guzmán's successor),[165] as well as for the 1995 assassination of the DINA biochemist Eugenio Berrios, himself involved in the Letelier case. General Augusto Pinochet took control of Chile in September 1973 following a military coup which had ousted the previous incumbent Salvador Allende. He was also known for being reserved, sharing little about his opinions or feelings. With rising domestic strife in Chile, after General Prats resigned his position, Pinochet was appointed commander-in-chief of the Army on 23 August 1973 by President Salvador Allende just one day after the Chamber of Deputies of Chile approved a resolution asserting that the government was not respecting the Constitution. According to the US Catholic author George Weigel, he held a meeting with Pinochet during which they discussed a return to democracy. In March 1985, the murder of three Communist Party members led to the resignation of César Mendoza, head of the Carabineros and member of the junta since its formation. His 17-year regime was responsible for numerous human rights violations, some of which were committed as part of Operation Condor, an illegal effort to suppress political opponents in Chile and abroad in coordination with foreign intelligence agencies. In 1980 he enacted a constitution giving himself an eight-year presidential term (1981–89). His military bodyguard was taken by surprise, and five members were killed. Speech on Pinochet at the Conservative Party Conference. [103] The Constitutional changes were approved by 91.25% of the voters. "[121] In 2001, Chilean President Ricardo Lagos informed the nation that during Pinochet's reign, 120 bodies had been tossed from helicopters into "the ocean, the lakes and the rivers of Chile". He rose through the ranks and was appointed Commander in Chief by President Salvador Allende in 1973… Despite denial of countless American agencies, current declassified documentation has proven the American involvement. Click to see full answer. In addition to the CIA's maintaining of assets in DINA beginning soon after the coup, several CIA assets, such as CORU Cuban exile militants Orlando Bosch and Guillermo Novo, collaborated in DINA operations under the Condor Plan in the early years of Pinochet's presidency. A further consignment of three frontier surveillance and shipping reconnaissance Canberras left for Chile in October. These amendments changed the way the Constitution would be modified in the future, added restrictions to state of emergency dispositions, the affirmation of political pluralism, and enhanced constitutional rights as well as the democratic principle and participation to political life. It really began in the early years of Pinochet's 1973-1990 dictatorship when … If the "YES" won, Pinochet would have to implement the dispositions of the 1980 Constitution, mainly the call for general elections, while he would himself remain in power as president. [87] Pinochet's policies eventually led to substantial GDP growth, in contrast to the negative growth seen in the early years of his administration,[80] while public debt also was kept high mostly to finance public spending which even after the privatization of services was kept at high rates (though far less than before privatization), for example, in 1991 after one year of post-Pinochet democracy debt was still at 37.4% of the GDP. MacLean, Nancy (2017) "Democracy in Chains: The Deep History of the Radical Right's Stealth Plan for America." In 2004, a United States Senate money laundering investigation led by Senators Carl Levin (D-MI) and Norm Coleman (R-MN)—ordered in the wake of the 11 September 2001 attacks—uncovered a network of over 125 securities and bank accounts at Riggs Bank and other U.S. financial institutions used by Pinochet and his associates for twenty-five years to secretly move millions of dollars. In a government decision, he was not granted a state funeral (an honor normally bestowed upon past presidents of Chile) but a military funeral as former commander-in-chief of the Army appointed by Allende. Pinochet was replaced as President of the Junta that day by Admiral Merino. [191] What followed was a widespread massacre of political opponents and a brutal fascist dictatorship in Chile that lasted from 1973 to 1990. [34], The following year he returned to his studies in the Academy, and after obtaining the title of Officer Chief of Staff, in 1951, he returned to teach at the Military School. [142] In Geopolítica Pinochet plagiarized his mentor general Gregorio Rodríguez Tascón by using paragraphs from a 1949 conference presentation of Rodríguez without attributing them to him. [23] These policies produced high economic growth, but critics state that economic inequality dramatically increased and attribute the devastating effects of the 1982 monetary crisis on the Chilean economy to these policies. The government also refused to declare an official national day of mourning, but it did authorize flags at military barracks to be flown at half staff, and for the Chilean flag to be draped on Pinochet's coffin. [40] Although later discredited and officially recognized as the product of political propaganda,[41] Gonzalo Vial Correa insists in the similarities between the alleged Plan Z and other existing paramilitary plans of the Popular Unity parties in support of its legitimacy. [169], On 25 November 2006, Pinochet marked his 91st birthday by having his wife read a statement he had written to admirers present for his birthday: "I assume the political responsibility for all that has been done. Also bad, because he killed a lot of people and terrorized the rest. [149], After having been placed under house arrest in Britain in October 1998 and initiating a judicial and public relations battle, the latter run by Thatcherite political operative Patrick Robertson,[150] he was released in March 2000 on medical grounds by the Home Secretary Jack Straw without facing trial. [15] After his rise to power, Pinochet persecuted leftists, socialists, and political critics, resulting in the executions of from 1,200 to 3,200 people,[16] the internment of as many as 80,000 people, and the torture of tens of thousands. There is no mention of the true brains, or that the whole of the armed forces were involved in this, in dirty and symbolic tasks. Less than a month later, the Chilean military deposed Allende. [142] Pinochet bought books at several small bookshops in the old centre of Santiago and was later supplied with books from abroad by military attachés who bought texts Pinochet was searching after. Not even his allies were safe. Augusto Pinochet was the leader of the military junta that overthrew Chile’s President Salvador Allende on September 11, 1973. Pinochet's remains lay in repose on 11 December 2006 at the Military Academy in Las Condes. Related to Pinochet's and his family secret bank accounts in United States and in Caribbean islands, this tax fraud filing for an amount of 27 million dollars shocked the conservative sectors who still supported him. He was later prosecuted for embezzlement, tax fraud, and for possible commissions levied on arms deals. Political advertising was legalized on 5 September 1987, as a necessary element for the campaign for the "NO" to the referendum, which countered the official campaign, which presaged a return to a Popular Unity government in case of a defeat of Pinochet. Pinochet directed the coup of September 11, 1973, and presided until 1990 over a military regime that violated human rights, shut down political parties, canceled elections, constrained the press and trade unions, and engaged in other undemocratic actions during its more than 16 years of rule. [162] Questioned by his judges in order to know if, as president, he was the direct head of DINA, he answered: "I don't remember, but it's not true. [144], Investigative journalist Juan Cristóbal Peña has put forward the thesis that Pinochet felt intellectual envy of Carlos Prats and that the latter's assassination in 1974 was a relief for Pinochet. [17][18][19] According to the Chilean government, the number of executions and forced disappearances was 3,095. During this ceremony, Francisco Cuadrado Prats—the grandson of Carlos Prats (a former Commander-in-Chief of the Army in the Allende government who was murdered by Pinochet's secret police)—spat on the coffin, and was quickly surrounded by supporters of Pinochet, who kicked and insulted him. According to Chilean Junta member and former Air Force commander, General Fernando Matthei, Chilean support included military intelligence gathering, radar surveillance, allowing British aircraft to operate with Chilean colours, and facilitating the safe return of British special forces, among other forms of assistance. [114] The Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front, however, has stated that only 49 FPMR guerrillas were killed but hundreds detained and tortured. Following a legal battle, he was released on grounds of ill-health and returned to Chile on 3 March 2000. In 1985, the government initiated a second round of privatization, revising previously introduced tariff increases and creating a greater supervisory role for the Central Bank. Chilean dictator, born in Valparaíso, Chile. On 5 October 1988, the "NO" option won with 55.99%[102] of the votes, against 44.01% of "YES" votes. In September 1937, Pinochet was assigned to the "Chacabuco" Regiment, in Concepción. [27], Pinochet's 17-year rule was given a legal framework through a controversial 1980 plebiscite, which approved a new constitution drafted by a government-appointed commission. [142] Pinochet's library contained almost no poetry or fiction works. The CIA chose to keep him as an asset, and at one point even paid him. Short Biography. It often comes as a surprise to foreigners visiting Chile to discover that Gen Augusto Pinochet still has supporters here. Diplomat Henry Kissinger was U.S. secretary of state under Richard Nixon, winning the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for the Vietnam War accords. He suffered a stroke on 18 December 2004. [109] Pinochet subsequently visited the UK on more than one occasion. After stepping down in 1990, Pinochet continued to serve as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 10 March 1998, when he retired and became a senator-for-life in accordance with his 1980 Constitution. When Augusto Pinochet, the authoritarian military ruler of Chile from 1973 to 1990, was arrested in London on 16 October 1998, it was one of those rare … British priest Michael Woodward, who vanished within 10 days of the coup, was tortured and beaten to death aboard the Chilean naval ship, Esmeralda.[68][69]. [178][179], In 2007, fifteen years of investigation led to the conclusion that the 1992 assassination of DINA Colonel Gerardo Huber was most probably related to various illegal arms traffic carried out, after Pinochet's resignation from power, by military circles very close to himself. [104] The extradition attempt was dramatised in the 2006 BBC television docudrama Pinochet in Suburbia, with Pinochet played by Derek Jacobi. The Coalition changed its name to Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia (Coalition of Parties for Democracy) and put forward Patricio Aylwin, a Christian Democrat who had opposed Allende, as presidential candidate, and also proposed a list of candidates for the parliamentary elections. Pinochet was head of … For the next 16 years, Pinochet was the head of … The opposition and the Pinochet government made several negotiations to amend the Constitution and agreed to 54 modifications. [127], According to Pinochet, who was aware of his ancestry, he was taught the French language by an uncle, although he later forgot most of it. Economist Andrew Farrant examined the Chilean constitutional clauses that MacLean attributes to Buchanan, and discovered that they pre-dated his visit. Salvador Allende became Chile's first socialist president in 1970 before committing suicide during a 1973 military coup. pages 154-168. [66], Some political scientists have ascribed the relative bloodiness of the coup to the stability of the existing democratic system, which required extreme action to overturn. [190] The only government authority present at the public funeral was the Defense Minister, Vivianne Blanlot. Yasser Arafat was chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization from 1969 until his death in 2004, a tumultuous period in which clashes with neighboring Israel were prevalent. [113] Among the killed and disappeared during the military regime were at least 663 Marxist MIR guerrillas. According to the New York Times, the name is … Pinochet was a general in the Chilean army who seized power in a violent coup d’état against Salvador Allende on September 11th, 1973. In Latin America, this was made in the frame of Operation Condor, a cooperation plan between the various intelligence agencies of South American countries, assisted by a United States CIA communication base in Panama. [70] This led to strained relations with the US and to the extradition of Michael Townley, a US citizen who worked for the DINA and had organized Letelier's assassination. [11], Augusto Pinochet rose through the ranks of the Chilean Army to become General Chief of Staff in early 1972 before being appointed its Commander-in-Chief on 23 August 1973 by President Salvador Allende. According to the later Valech Report approximately 31,947 were tortured and 1,312 exiled. His senatorship and consequent immunity from prosecution protected him from legal action. [90][91] According to Chilean economist Alejandro Foxley, by the end of Pinochet's reign around 44% of Chilean families were living below the poverty line. 111 legislators voted for, and 29 against.[156]. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. When was Augusto Pinochet's birth date? In Spain, supporters of late dictator Francisco Franco paid homage to Pinochet. The Opposition, gathered into the Concertación de Partidos por el NO ("Coalition of Parties for NO"), organized a colorful and cheerful campaign under the slogan La alegría ya viene ("Joy is coming"). 20 March 2005. The armed forces refused to allow his ashes to be deposited on military property. Augusto Pinochet Ugarte joined the Chilean army in 1935. "[120], The practice of murdering political opponents via "death flights", employed by the juntas of Argentina and Chile, has sometimes been the subject of numerous alt-right and other right-wing extremist groups internet memes, with the suggestion that political enemies and leftists be given "free helicopter rides. [97][98], American scholar, Nancy MacLean, wrote that the concentration of money in the hands of the very rich and the perversion of democracy through the privatization of government was always the goal. General Leigh, head of the Air Force, became increasingly opposed to Pinochet's policies and was forced into retirement on 24 July 1978, after contradicting Pinochet on that year's plebiscite (officially called Consulta Nacional, or National Consultation, in response to a UN resolution condemning Pinochet's government). [87] Many foreign multinational corporations such as International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT), Dow Chemical, and Firestone, all expropriated by Allende, returned to Chile. Pinochet declared that he wanted "to make Chile not a nation of proletarians, but a nation of proprietors. In October 1979, The New York Times reported that Amnesty International had documented the disappearance of approximately 1,500 Chileans since 1973. In arguing their case, the prosecution presented a recent TV interview Pinochet had given to journalist Maria Elvira Salazar[159] for a Miami-based television network, which raised doubts about his alleged mental incapacity. [11] By the time of his death on 10 December 2006, about 300 criminal charges were still pending against him in Chile for numerous human rights violations during his 17-year rule and tax evasion and embezzlement during and after his rule. Augusto Pinochet, in full Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, (born November 25, 1915, Valparaiso, Chile—died December 10, 2006, Santiago), leader of the military junta that overthrew the socialist government of Pres. A year later, the murder of 119 opponents abroad was disguised as an internal conflict, the DINA setting up a propaganda campaign to support this idea (Operation Colombo), a campaign publicised by the leading newspaper in Chile, El Mercurio. 6 October 1999", "UK | UK Politics | Pinochet death 'saddens' Thatcher", "Caidos Del Mir En Diferente Periodos. Jacobo Timerman has called the Chilean army under Pinochet "the last Prussian army in the world,"[126] suggesting a pre-Fascist origin to the model of Pinochet's military government. French Father's School (Valparaiso, Chile) What is Augusto Pinochet's occupation? [131] Images of Pinochet have been used in several Internet memes with the caption "Pinochet's Free Helicopter Rides", referencing death flights which saw political dissidents being thrown from helicopters over the Pacific or the Andes during Pinochet's rule. From the moment of his election in September, 1970 the Nixon administration mounted … "[74], On 2 June 2017, Chilean judge Hernan Cristoso sentenced 106 former Chilean intelligence officials to between 541 days and 20 years in prison for their role in the kidnapping and murder of 16 left-wing activists in 1974 and 1975.[75]. In 1948, Pinochet was initiated in the regular Masonic Lodge Victoria n°15 of the Orient of St. Bernard, affiliated to the Grand Lodge of Chile. In the days that followed his military coup, hundreds of people, were rounded up and taken to the two main sport stadiums in the capital, Santiago. This allowed British ships and troops in the war zone to take defensive action. The exiles were chased all over the world by the intelligence agencies. The arrest caused tension between U.K. and Chile, and civil unrest in Chile between Pinochet supporters and opponents. Pinochet organized a plebiscite on 11 September 1980 to ratify a new constitution, replacing the 1925 Constitution drafted during Arturo Alessandri's presidency. United States intelligence agencies believed the plan to be untrue propaganda. Variations of the internet meme have seen increased popularity with the rise of far-right and alt-right politics. Augusto Pinochet (born in 1915 and died in 2006) was a Chilean soldier, president, commander-in-chief, intellectual, author, military theorist and leader of the Chilean Military Revolution, who fought against the establishment of a Marxist tyranny in his country. [192][D] His ashes were delivered to his family later that day, and are deposited in Los Boldos, Santo Domingo, Valparaiso, Chile; one of his personal residences. [56] He officially changed his title to "President" on 17 December 1974. He was then sworn in as a senator-for-life, a privilege granted by the 1980 constitution to former presidents with at least six years in office. [137][138][139][140] Roger Griffin included Pinochet in a group of pseudo-populist despots distinct from fascism, which included the likes of Saddam Hussein, Suharto, and Ferdinand Marcos. In October 1998 he became the centre of international attention when he was arrested in London, following a request from Spain for his extradition to stand trial for ‘crimes of genocide and terrorism’, in which some of the victims had been Spanish nationals. The body of the renowned Chilean singer, theatre director and academic Víctor Jara was found in a dirty canal "with his hands and face extremely disfigured" and with "forty-four bullet holes. [118][119] Beatings with gun butts, fists and chains were routine; one technique known as "the telephone" involved the torturer slamming "his open hands hard and rhythmically against the ears of the victim," leaving the person deaf. By late 1945, Pinochet had been assigned to the "Carampangue" Regiment in the northern city of Iquique. Chile's former president, the retired general Augusto Pinochet, was about to travel to Europe - including the UK. "[43] Along with this, CIA operatives directly involved, such as Jack Devine, have also come out and declared their involvement in the coup. The junta members originally planned that the presidency would be held for a year by the commanders-in-chief of each of the four military branches in turn. [115] According to a study in Latin American Perspectives,[116] at least 200,000 Chileans (about 2% of Chile's 1973 population) were forced to go into exile. [61], In September 1986, weapons from the same source were used in an unsuccessful assassination attempt against Pinochet by the FPMR. "[163], In January 2005, the Chilean Army accepted institutional responsibility for past human rights abuses. [178] The payments began in 1997 and lasted until 2004. Benazir Bhutto became the first female prime minister of Pakistan in 1988. Pinochet admired Napoleon as the greatest among French and had a framed picture of him. During Pinochet's reign it is estimated that some one million people had been forced to flee the country.[43]. Guzmán had ordered in 1999 the arrest of five militarists, including General Pedro Espinoza Bravo of the DINA, for their role in the Caravan of Death following the coup on 11 September. "What Should (Knightian) Economists Do? Historian Alfredo Jocelyn-Holt has referred to Pinochet's figure as "totemic", and added that it serves as a scapegoat which attracts "all hate. He was also the editor of the institutional magazine Cien Águilas ('One Hundred Eagles'). New York. [118] Following abuse and execution, corpses were interred in secret graves, dropped into rivers or the ocean, or just dumped on urban streets in the night. He stated that the coup itself was possible only through a three-year covert operation mounted by the United States. On October 8, 1999, London Magistrate Ronald Bartle committed General Augusto Pinochet for extradition to Spain where he could stand trial for 34 counts of … On 30 January 1943, Pinochet married Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, with whom he had five children: Inés Lucía, María Verónica, Jacqueline Marie, Augusto Osvaldo and Marco Antonio. Installments, were honored a detention and torture center in the US rights violator and violent dictator important... 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